University Timeline

  • 1904

    The first combatant Russian submarine Dolphin was floated out. SPbPI teachers I.G. Bubnov and M.N. Beklemishev took active part in the design and construction of it.

  • 1904

    Professor N.A. Menshutkin was honored with the Lomonosov Award for his works in chemical kinetics.

  • 1904

    Chair of the Department of General Chemistry N.S. Kurnakov invented the “Kurnakov pyrometer”, the top-of-the-line for the time device for thermal analysis.

  • 1908

    The first in the world diesel submarine “Minoga,” in the creation of which Polytechnic specialists took most active part, was built.

  • 1909

    A fundamental work by professor A.A. Chuprov Essays of the Theory of Statistics was published. In it, he defined the necessary and sufficient conditions for applicability of the law of large numbers.

  • 1909

    The first in Russia textbook on aeromechanics was published. It was authored by Professor A.P. Van der Vliet. It was published by the students’ Mutual Benefit Fund.

  • 1910

    Professors V.F. Mitkevich and S.N. Usatyi, using the unique equipment of the institute’s Electrotechnical Laboratory, proved the feasibility in Russia of power transmission lines for the voltages exceeding 80 kWt.

  • 1912

    Professor P.P. Fedotyev developed the foundations for the electrolytic production of domestic aluminum.

  • 1913

    Under direction of Professor M.A. Shatelen, the first ever parallel operation of power stations of different type had been performed. In Pyatigorsk, the “White Coal” HPS and “Teplovaya” diesel power station had jointly operated.

  • 1913

    Electrical engineer M.P. Kostenko took part in the development of field-telephone model.

  • 1913

    Electrical engineer M.P. Kostenko took part in the development of field-telephone model.

  • 1915

    Professor N.D. Zelinsky developed construction of the world’s first coal gas mask capable to adsorb a broad scale of toxic materials.

  • 1915

    Academician N.N. Pavlovsky devised a project for irrigation of the Hungry Steppe in the Middle Asia.

  • 1916

    A theoretical seminar on physics started to function at Petrograd Polytechnic Institute under direction of Professor A.F. Ioffe.

  • 1916

    Head of the laboratory of the aeronautics course V.A. Slesarv completed construction of the "Svyatogor", the world’s biggest for the time airplane of his design.

  • 1917

    The first Russian enterprise for quality steel-making, the Electrostal Plant, was designed and built in Moscow Province under the direction of professors A.Ye. Grum-Grzhimailo and N.I. Belyaev.

  • 1918

    1918-1921 A heater-type cathode for electronic lamps was invented at the Department of Radiotechnics under the guidance of Professor A.A. Chernyshev.

  • 1919

    1919-1926 Design and construction of the Volkhov HPS was implemented under the direction of Academician G.O Graftio. This was the first experience of a major design and implementation of numerous Polytechnic hydraulic and electrical engineers in the sphere of hydrotechnical constructions.

  • 1920

    Polytechnic Institute student L.S. Termen created the world’s first no-touch electric musical instrument, known all over the world as termenvox.

  • 1922

    Professor A.A. Friedmann found the unsteady solutions of Einstein's field equations and, as a consequence, predicted that the whole universe would expand and evolve with time, and thus put the beginning of relativistic cosmology.

  • 1922

    In realization of Professor A.A. Chernyshev’s idea, the first in the USSR high-frequency telephone connection was established using the Kashira-Moscow high-voltage power transmission line.

  • 1922

    Polytechnics M.P. Kostenko and P.L. Kapitsa (future Acdemicians of the USSR AS) received a patent in England for the invention of the world’s first impact-excited generator for generating extremely strong magnetic fields.

  • 1922

    1922-1924 Professor L.N. Yurovsky developed principles for the implementation of monetary reform in the USSR.

  • 1924

    M.A. Pavlov’s Metallurgy of Crude Iron monograph was published.

  • 1924

    Professor G.G. Urazov performed a study of Tikhvin bauxites.

  • 1924

    A.F. Ioffe formulated the basic concepts of the nature of hardness of solid body. In particular, he identified the defining role of the surface in the grain hardness. (A.F. Ioffe Effect).

  • 1925

    Polytechnic Institute alumnus L.S. Termen created the first in the USSR real-time television unit with optical-mechanical scanning. That same year, A.A. Chernyshev and Ya.R. Schmidt-Chernysheva patented a variant of a similar device. Later on, this principle was used in the USSR for the development of equipment for space television for taking photos of the far side of the Moon.

  • 1926

    With participation of Professor A. A. Radthig and Polytechnic alumnus M.I. Grinberg, the first turbine of domestic-production was developed and manufactured at the Leningrad Metal Plant (LMZ).

  • 1926

    Professor N.N. Semenov and his colleagues developed the theory of branching chain reactions and its application to the combustion and explosion processes.

  • 1926

    Professor Ya.I. Frenkel developed the concept of “holes” (vacant crystal lattice points) and defined their role in the transfer process.

  • 1927

    P.L. Kapitsa and D.V. Skobeltsin developed a modification of the Wilson chamber having equipped it with external magnetic field. This allowed to visualize traces and measure energy of charged particles.

  • 1927-1932

    1912 Polytechnic Institute graduate A.V. Vinter directed construction of the Dneprovskaya HPS, then the largest in capacity in Europe.

  • 1928

    The first flight testing of a two-seater trainer U-2 airplane (PO-2 since 1944), designed by Polytechnic graduate N.N. Polikarpov, took start.

  • 1928

    Hydraulic turbine generators were installed at the Volkhov HPS. Their developers and technical officers were: V.A. Tolvinsky, M.P. Kostenko, D.V. Yefremov, A.S. Schwarts and other Polytechnic graduates and employees.

  • 1928

    P.L. Kapitsa established the law of linear increase of electric resistance of a metal in proportion to the magnetizing force (Kapitsa Law).

  • 1928

    1928-1935 The fundamental edition of the Reference Book for Electrical Engineers (in 6 volumes) under the general editorship of Polytechnic professors M.A. Shatelen, V.F. Mitkevich, and V.A. Tolvinsky was published.

  • 1929

    P.P. Fedotiev received first samples of aluminum of domestic production at the Polytechnic Institute’s chemical laboratory.

  • 1929

    Industrial production of aluminum started at Krasny Vyborzhets Plant.

  • 1929

    Yu.V. Kondratyuk’s book Conquest of Interplanetary Space was published.

  • 1929

    NASA used the scholar’s calculations in 1961-1975 in the “Apollo” Moon program. The trajectory of flight he had proposed was later on named “Kondratyuk’s Route.”

  • 1930

    The seagoing test of the first Soviet submarine “Decembrist” started. It was developed with participation of Polytechnic graduates B.M. Malinin, S.A. Bazilevsky, K.P. Ruberovsky, E.E. Kruger.

  • 1930

    Polytechnic Institute graduate L.A. Kubetsky invented photoelectric electron-multiple tube (PEMT).

  • 1930

    Production of PEMTs was started at Svetlana Plant under the direction of Polytechnic Institute graduate, future academician, S.A. Vekshinsky.

  • 1931

    1931-1932 A special pilot 500 kW high-voltage line was deployed in Sosnovka Woodland Park (nearby the High-Voltage Laboratory of the Leningrad Electro-Physical Institute) under the direction of professor N.P. Vinogradov.

  • 1931

    1931-1933 The Institute of Telemechanics was established (since 1935, the All-Union R&D Television Institute) under the direction of professor A.A. Chernyshev. The Polytechnic headed the major departments in it: Ya.A. Ryftin, Head of the Television Sector; B.V. Krusser, Head of the Laboratory of Camera Tubes; K.M. Yanchevsky, Head of the Laboratory of Picture Tubes.

  • 1932

    Recent graduates of Polytechnic Institute and future academicians A.K. Valter, A.I. Leipunsky, and G.D. Latyshev executed the first in our country nuclear reaction in their experiments with lithium.

  • 1933

    Polytechnic specialists took part in the famous flight of SSS-1 stratospheric balloon for exploring the stratosphere and space and had successfully flown up to 19,200 meter altitude

  • 1933

    LPI professors L.G. Loitsyansky and A.I. Lurie published the first volume of the world-famous textbook on the theoretical mechanics, which for many decades remained the principle textbook in this fundamental discipline in all technical schools of higher education in our country.

  • 1934

    The laboratory headed by Polytechnic graduate B.V. Krusser created the first samples of television camera tube and the first national iconoscope.

  • 1935

    The world’s fastest for the time cruiser “Kirov” was laid down after the design of LPI teacher A.I. Maslov.

  • 1936

    Department Head A.A. Gorev published his monograph on the Founding Equations for the Transient Regime of a Synchronous Machine, in which he derived the fundamental equations for synchronous machines (Gorev-Park equations).

  • 1936

    The 82 mm battalion mortar, designed by LPI graduate N.A. Dorovlev, was accepted for service to the Red Army.

  • 1938

    LPI graduate, constructor of artillery armament F.F. Petrov designed the M-30 mortar, one of the best guns of this caliber.

  • 1939

    Polytechnic graduate M.I. Koshkin designed the T-34 tank recognized as the best tank of World War II

  • 1939

    Ya.B. Zeldovich, Yu.B. Khariton (Polytechnic Institute graduates), and I.I. Gurevich made assessment of the critical mass of uranium-235 in the fast fission chain reaction (for the first time ever).

  • 1939

    The prototype of the KV (‘Klim Voroshilov’) heavy tank designed by Polytechnic Institute graduate N.L. Dukhov was produced at the Kirov Plant.

  • 1940

    1940-1943 The first soviet magnetron radiolocation station was developed under the direction of Polytechnic Institute Associate Professor Yu.B. Kobzarev.

  • 1940-1943

    Polytechnic Institute graduate N.D. Devyatkov developed the first in the USSR double-transit oscillator.

  • 1940

    1940-1943 Polytechnic Institute graduate G.N. Flerov together with K.A. Petrzhak discovered spontaneous fission of elements of heavy nuclei.

  • 1940

    1940-1943 Polytechnic Institute graduate I.V. Kurchatov’s work on the Heavy Nuclei Fission was published; in it, he gave a full-fledged analysis of the ways to practical implementation of the nuclear chain reaction.

  • 1940

    1940-1943 Nuclear tests terminated in the beginning of the war were resumed after the establishment of the research center for the nuclear tests management: the “Laboratory №2” of the USSR AS; I.V. Kurchatov was appointed its director.

  • 1940-1943

    Academician M.P. Kostenko along with evacuated Polytechnic Institute employees established the Energy Institute in Tashkent, which laid foundations for the Uzbek Academy of Sciences.

  • 1945

    The IS-3 tank, the most powerful tank of World War II, designed by the Polytechnic: Zh.Ya. Kotin, N.L. Dukhov, F.F. Petrov was accepted for service in the Soviet Army.

  • 1947

    A group of specialists under the direction of LPI graduate S.N. Vernov developed the first in the world apparatus for studying cosmic rays using geophysical rockets and with data translation to the Earth via radio transmission.

  • 1949

    Polytechnic graduates developed the first national television set KVN-49. The size of the image on the screen was only 105 x 140 millimeter

  • 1949

    Testing of the first Soviet nuclear bomb was held at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. Director of the site was Polytechnic Institute graduate M.A. Sadovsky.

  • 1949

    The vital contribution to the solution of the atomic problem was made by the Polytechnic: I.V. Kurchatov, A.P. Alexandrov, A.I. Alikhanov, Ya.B. Zeldovich, A.F. Ioffe, P.L. Kapitsa, I.K. Kikoin, G.N. Flerov, Yu.B. Khariton, K.I. Shchelkin, L.A. Artsimovich, P.I. Lukirsky.

  • 1949

    An accelerator for fundamental research in the field of nuclear physics, the proton synchrocyclotron, was launched in Dubna. Polytechnic Institute alumni V.P. Dzhelepov and D.V. Yefremov were among the leaders of the project.

  • 1949

    M.M. Botvinnik became the Sixth World Chess Champion by the results of the world tournament. He was the first Soviet Champion and had held the title, with two brief interruptions, for the next fifteen years, during which he had played seven world championship matches.

  • 1954

    Polytechnic Institute alumnus V.I. Neganov was appointed Chief Structural Engineer of the first world’s nuclear-power icebreaker “Lenin”.

  • 1954

    First power was produced at the world’s first nuclear power plant in Obninsk. Its construction started in 1952; I.V. Kurchatov was the scientific supervisor of the works.

  • 1956

    N.N. Semenov (Polytechnic Institute professor in the 1920s) was awarded with the Nobel Prize for the development of the theory of chain reactions.

  • 1954

    1954-1958 The first in the USSR electromechanical analog computers (AVM) were developed and manufactured at LPI by a group of institute’s students under the direction of Polytechnic graduate T.N. Sokolov.

  • 1954

    1954-1958 In 1956, a special laboratory was established at LPI for the development of an automated digital information machine (“Quartz”) intended for determination of the trajectory parameters of orbital objects. First samples were produced in 1957-58; in 1958, the Quartz machines were used to determine the actual trajectory parameters of the third artificial satellite of the Earth, and in 1961, they were used for the control of Yury Gagarin’s space flight.

  • 1959

    The first images of the back side of the Moon were received with active participation of Polytechnic specialists

  • 1959

    The Polytechnic, V.V. Afanasyev, V.V. Burgsdorf, I.A. Drozdov and V.Yu. Frenkel, took part in the development of the Volgograd-Moscow 500 kW high-voltage line.

  • 1960

    The R-12 missile, equipped with a fully autonomous inertial control system, took over combat duty. The chief designer was Polytechnic Institute graduate V.I. Kuznetsov.

  • 1960

    Later on, a series of devices for inter-continental ballistic missiles and booster rockets were developed under his direction.

  • 1961

    A Special Construction Bureau for the development of major automated control systems was established in affiliation with LPI. Professor T.N. Sokolov was appointed its Chief Designer. In 1987, the SCB was transformed into the Impulse Science and Production Association.

  • 1965

    Aircraft AN-22 ("Antey"), the world's largest turboprop air transport, developed under the direction of Polytechnic Institute graduate O.K. Antonov, took its first flight.

  • 1966

    Under the guidance of Doctor of Technical Sciences E.I. Yurevich (Polytechnic graduate and professor) the problem of ensuring a soft landing of spacecrafts returning to the Earth was solved.

  • 1967

    #102 and 106 chemical elements were discovered at the Polytechnic Nuclear Laboratory

  • 1967

    Head of LPI Department V.V. Pomerantsev developed the method of low-temperature vortex combustion. The method was patented and applied not only in the USSR but also abroad.

  • 1967

    In 2012, in the honor of Academician G.N. Flerov and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, the 114th element was named “flerovium”.

  • 1968

    LPI graduate, future Academician I.A. Glebov completed the development of quick-response excitation systems, later on exploited at the major HPSs of our country.

  • 1968

    In affiliation with LPI, a Special Bureau of Robotics was established. Professor Ye.I. Yurevich was appointed its director. In 1981, it was reorganized into the State Scientific Center for Robotics and Technical Cybernetics (RTC).

  • 1969

    An automated control system (ACS) was introduced into service to the Strategic Missile Forces. Chief Designer of ACS RSMF was Professor T.N. Sokolov.

  • 1969

    The first country’s integrated research robot lpi-1 and its first modifications were developed at the SCR &TC affiliated with LPI. 1970 The automatic interplanetary station “Luna-16” delivered samples of moon soil to the Earth. The soft landing control system of the station was developed under the guidance of Professor E.I. Yurevich.

  • 1970

    The creation of the world's largest Unified Energy System (UES) in the European part of the USSR was completed. Among the authors of the scientific concept of the UES were LPI graduates E.I. Yurevich, L.M. Melentiev, Yu.N. Rudenko, A.A. Makarov, V.N. Kozlov.

  • 1974

    The first observation of space objects with the world's largest radio telescope RATAN-600 took place. LPI graduates N.A. Yesepkina and V.Yu. Petrunkin played essential role in its development.

  • 1977

    The Polytechnic N.N. Kovalev, G.S. Schegolev and I.A. Gruzdev took part in the development of the most powerful turbine (640 MWt) for the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPS.

  • 1978

    Polytechnic Institute graduate of 1918, Academician P.L. Kapitsa was awarded with the Nobel Prize in physics.

  • 1978

    The Obukhov Plant (director: Polytechnic Institute graduate A.S. Spitsyn) manufactured antenna devices for receiving telemetric information from the “Energy-Buran” reusable space system.

  • 1982

    Yu.S. Vasiliev, professor and rector-to-be of Polytechnic Institute, was appointed supervisor of the integrated program “Energy System” of the USSR Ministry of Energy, and LPI was approved as the principal institute for this program.

  • 1986

    The first in the USSR textbook on genetic engineering by LPI professor V.N. Rybchin Fundamentals of Genetic Engineering was published.

  • 1988

    For the first time ever, the thermonuclear fusion system called “Tokamak-16” was launched; the main contribution to the development and study of it was made by the team of scientists of the Polytechnic Institute

  • 1988

    Two-volume Hydropower and Auxiliary Equipment of Hydroelectric Power Plants reference monograph under edition of professor D.S. Shchavelev, Polytechnic Institute graduate, was published.

  • 1989

    The Taganrog Aviation Science and Research Complex was named after its founder, G.M. Beriev, a Polytechnic Institute graduate. Ideas of the outstanding aircraft designer were implemented in the series of hydroplanes: from BE-2 to BE-200.

  • 1992

    Professor Yu.A. Rundygin and his LPI group implemented and mastered the new technology of low-temperature vortex combustion decreasing hazardous gas emissions.

  • 1997

    The first control session with an on-orbit robotic manipulator was carried out using a computer network at the CRDI RTC, and institution established and directed by Polytechnic alumni

  • 1997

    The first ever control session of the space robotic manipulator using a computer network was accomplished at the State Scientific Center for Robotics and Technical Cybernetics. It was enabled by the scholars of the Scientific Center and on the stand of the Space Forum in Turin (Italy).

  • 1997

    An “anti-terrorist robot” was developed at the SCR&TC for the search, withdrawal or liquidation on the spot of explosive and other hazardous items.

  • 1998

    The “Cactus-2B” system for the control over the soft landing of the “Soyuz TM"-type spaceships was developed at the SCR&TC.

  • 1998

    Polytechnic specialists participated in the design development of the Baltic pipeline system.

  • 1998

    Polytechnic scholars took part in working out the plan for lifting up the nuclear submarine “Kursk”.

  • 1999

    The Economics and Organization of University Management textbook written by a group of authors (Yu.S. Vasiliev, V.V. Glukhov, M.P. Fedorov, A.V. Fedotov) was published. The book was one of the first editions dedicated to the economic and management issues of university administration.

  • 2000

    Dean of the SPbPU Physics and Technology Department Zh.I. Alferov was awarded with the Nobel Prize for the development of semiconductor heterostructures for high-speed optoelectronics

  • 2002

    In 2002, the small planet # 13474 was named after Academician Yu.S.Vasilev, a Polytechnic

  • 2007

    Polytechnic University became the winner of the “Innovative University” contest held within the frame of the high-priority national “Education” project

  • 2010

    SPbPU received the honorary status of “National Research University

  • 2013

    FabLab Polytech was launched.

  • 2013

    The University became participant of the “5-100” national project for enhancement of competitiveness of the leading Russian universities

  • 2015

    AIDS vaccine development and laboratory testing

  • 2015

    Supercomputer Center "Polytechnic" was launched.

  • 2016

    April. SPbPU was the first Russian university to establish an official representative office in Shanghai, the new Pudong district.

  • 2016

    SPbPU scientists created "smart foil" for mounting industrial transducers.

  • 2017

    April. As a new strategic step, SPbPU established an official representative office in Madrid.

  • 2017

    SPbPU Solar Team designed the first Russian solar unique solar-powered car. Solar vehicle SOL had been made for the largest international race of solar electric cars, the “World Solar Challenge” across Australia.

  • 2018

    In 2018 solar vehicle SOL successfully participated in the American Solar Challenge (ASC).

  • 2018

    Polytechnic team had been carrying out intensive preparatory works on the establishment of SPbPU information centers in Vietnam and the Republic of Mali

  • 2018

    Researchers of SPbPU developed a unique equipment for ultrasound examination.

  • 2018

    Russian scientists developed a "predictor" of Parkinson's disease forms.

  • 2018

    Russian scientists invented an imagination booster for post-stroke patients.

  • 2018

    SPbPU Scientists took another step towards creating an HIV vaccine.

  • 2018

    SPbPU Scientists developed an analog of bone tissue which is able to restore parts of bone lost as a result of trauma or illness.

  • 2019

    Polytechnic scientists created an intelligent system for diagnosing lung tumors

  • 2019

    Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University celebrates its 120th birthday. Through all the time of its existence, our alma mater has been making a worthy contribution both to the development of the Russian science and education, and to the establishment of the world science, education, and industry